What Is Debt Consolidation
Debt consolidation rolls multiple debts into a single payment. It can work if your debt isn't excessive and you have good credit and a plan to keep debt in check.
Debt consolidation rolls high-interest debts, such as credit card bills, into a single, lower-interest payment. It can reduce your total debt and reorganize it so you pay it off faster.
If you’re dealing with a manageable amount of debt and just want to reorganize multiple bills with different interest rates, payments and due dates, debt consolidation is a sound approach you can tackle on your own.
How does debt consolidation work?
There are two primary ways to consolidate debt, both of which concentrate your debt payments into one monthly bill:
Get a 0% interest, balance-transfer credit card: Transfer all your debts onto this card and pay the balance in full during the promotional period.
Get a fixed-rate debt consolidation loan: Use the money from the loan to pay off your debt, then pay back the loan in installments over a set term.
Two additional ways to consolidate debt are taking out a home equity loan or 401(k) loan. However, these two options involve risk — to your home or your retirement. In any case, the best option for you depends on your credit score and profile, as well as your debt-to-income ratio.
When debt consolidation is a good idea
Success with a consolidation strategy requires the following:
Your total debt excluding mortgage doesn’t exceed 40% of your gross income
Your credit is good enough to qualify for a 0% credit card or low-interest debt consolidation loan
Your cash flow consistently covers payments toward your debt
You have a plan to prevent running up debt again
Here’s a scenario when consolidation makes sense: Say you have four credit cards with interest rates ranging from 18.99% to 24.99%. You always make your payments on time, so your credit is good. You might qualify for an unsecured debt consolidation loan at 7% — a significantly lower interest rate.
Debt consolidation works if it includes a plan to prevent running up debt again.
For many people, consolidation reveals a light at the end of the tunnel. If you take a loan with a three-year term, you know it will be paid off in three years — assuming you make your payments on time and manage your spending. Conversely, making minimum payments on credit cards could mean months or years before they’re paid off, all while accruing more interest than the initial principal.
When debt consolidation is a bad idea
Consolidation isn’t a silver bullet for debt problems. It doesn’t address excessive spending habits that create debt in the first place. It’s also not the solution if you’re overwhelmed by debt and have no hope of paying it off even with reduced payments.
If your debt load is small — you can pay it off within six months to a year at your current pace — and you’d save only a negligible amount by consolidating, don’t bother.
If the total of your debts is more than half your income, and the calculator above reveals that debt consolidation is not your best option, you’re better off seeking debt relief than treading water.
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